African Union Headquarters Bujumbura, Burundi
Nation States Africa
GA Resolution 047: Annual Luunia Peace Prize
Proposed by: United Faiths
May 30, 2007
GA Resolution 48: Anti-Black Market Charter
GA Resolution 049: Resolution Against Doping in Sport
Proposed by Malawi
June 2, 2007
Considering that the aim of the African Union is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science and culture;
Referring to the existing international instruments relating to human rights;
Conscious that sport should play an important role in the protection of health, in moral, cultural and physical education and in promoting international understanding and peace;
Noting the need to encourage and coordinate international cooperation toward the elimination of doping in sport;
Concerned by the use of doping by athletes in sport, particularly those from Xibeiguo and The Terriotry, and the consequences thereof for their health, the principle of fair play, the elimination of cheating and the future of sport;
Mindful that doping puts at risk the ethical principles and educational values embodied in the African Union Charter;
Mindful also of the influence that elite athletes have on youth;
Aware also of the importance of ongoing education of athletes, athlete support personnel and the community at large in preventing doping;
Mindful of the need to build the capacity of States Parties to implement anti-doping programs;
Aware that public authorities and the organisations responsible for sport have complementary responsibilities to prevent and combat doping in sport, notably to ensure the proper conduct, on the basis of the principle of fair play, of sports events and to protect the health of those that take part in them;
Recognising that these authorities and organisations must work together for these purposes ensuring the highest degree of independence and transparency at all appropriate levels;
Determined to take further and stronger cooperative action aimed at the elimination of doping in sport;
Recognising that the elimination of doping in sport is dependent in part upon progressive
harmonisation of anti-doping standards and practices in sport and cooperation at the national and global level;
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE AFRICAN UNION DECIDES TO
1. Undertake mandatory drug testing for all athletes competing in major international events to ensure the integrity of the games are upheld.
2. Expel any athlete that tests positive for doping.
3. Hold governments that are complicit with doping, based on evidence, accountable and possibly sanctioned by the appropriate athletic federation board.
4. Provide funding within the organization’s budget to support a national testing program across all sports or assist sports organisations and anti-doping organisations to finance doping controls either by direct subsidies or grants, or by recognising the costs of such controls when determining the overall subsidies or grants to be awarded to those organisations;
5. Take steps to withhold sport-related financial support to individual athletes or athlete
support personnel who have been suspended following an anti-doping rule violation,
during the period of their suspension;
6. Withhold some or all financial or other sport-related support from any sports organisation or anti-doping organisation not in compliance with the Code or applicable anti-doping rules adopted pursuant to the Code.
7. Define the following agents as illegal sports enhancing substances:
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
18α-jerk-17β-hydroxyestr-4-en-3-one; bolasterone; boldenone; boldione; calusterone; clostebol; danazol; dehydrochloromethyltestosterone;
delta1-androstene-3,17-dione; delta1-androstenediol; delta1-dihydro-testosterone; drostanolone; ethylestrenol; fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol; gestrinone;
4-hydroxytestosterone; 4-hydroxy-19-nortestosterone; mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone; methandienone; methandriol;
methyldienolone; methyltrienolone; methyltestosterone; mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-norandrostenediol; 19-norandrostenedione;
norbolethone; norclostebol; norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone; quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone;
tetrahydrogestrinone; trenbolone and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS:
androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione); dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); dihydrotestosterone;
and the following metabolites and isomers:
5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol;, 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol;
androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol;
4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione(androst-5-ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α-
androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one;19-norandrosterone; 19-noretiocholanolone.
Where a Prohibited Substance (as listed above) is capable of being produced by the body naturally, a Sample will be deemed to contain such Prohibited Substance
where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers and/or any other relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample so deviates from the
range of values normally found in humans that it is unlikely to be consistent withnormal endogenous production. A Sample shall not be deemed to contain a
Prohibited Substance in any such case where the Athlete proves by evidence that the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites or markers
and/or the relevant ratio(s) in the Athlete’s Sample is attributable to a physiological or pathological condition. In all cases, and at any concentration, the
laboratory will report an Adverse Analytical Finding if, based on any reliable analytical method, it can show that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous
If the laboratory result is not conclusive and no concentration as referred to in the above paragraph is found, the relevant Anti-Doping Organization shall conduct a
further investigation if there are serious indications, such as a comparison to reference steroid profiles, for a possible Use of a Prohibited Substance.
If the laboratory has reported the presence of a T/E ratio greater than four (4) to one (1) in the urine, further investigation is obligatory in order to determine
whether the ratio is due to a physiological or pathological condition, except if the laboratory reports an Adverse Analytical Finding based on any reliable analytical
method, showing that the Prohibited Substance is of exogenous origin.
In case of an investigation, it will include a review of any previous and/or subsequent tests. If previous tests are not available, the Athlete shall be tested
unannounced at least three times within a three month period.
Should an Athlete fail to cooperate in the investigations, the Athlete’s Sample shall be deemed to contain a Prohibited Substance.
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, zeranol, zilpaterol.
For purposes of this section:
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally.
HORMONES AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances, including other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), and their releasing factors, are prohibited:
1. Erythropoietin (EPO);
2. Growth Hormone (hGH), Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs);
3. Gonadotrophins (LH, hCG);
Unless the Athlete can demonstrate that the concentration was due to a physiological or pathological condition, a Sample will be deemed to contain a
Prohibited Substance (as listed above) where the concentration of the Prohibited Substance or its metabolites and/or relevant ratios or markers in the Athlete’s Sample so exceeds the range of values normally found in humans so that it is unlikely to be consistent with normal endogenous production.
The presence of other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s), diagnostic marker(s) or releasing factors of a hormone listed
above or of any other finding which indicate(s) that the substance detected is of exogenous origin, will be reported as an Adverse Analytical Finding.
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists including their D- and L-isomers are prohibited. Their use requires a Therapeutic Use Exemption.
As an exception, formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol and terbutaline, when administered by inhalation to prevent and/or treat asthma and exercise-induced
asthma/broncho-constriction require an abbreviated Therapeutic Use Exemption.
Despite the granting of a Therapeutic Use Exemption, when the Laboratory has reported a concentration of salbutamol (free plus glucuronide) greater than
1000 ng/mL, this will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the athlete proves that the abnormal result was the consequence of the therapeutic
use of inhaled salbutamol.
AGENTS WITH ANTI-ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY
The following classes of anti-estrogenic substances are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to, anastrozole, letrozole, aminogluthetimide, exemestane, formestane, testolactone.
2. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to, raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to, clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Diuretics and other masking agents are prohibited.
Masking agents include but are not limited to:
Diuretics*, epitestosterone, probenecid, alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g. finasteride, dutasteride), plasma expanders (e.g. albumin, dextran,
acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlortalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone,
thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), triamterene, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
* A Therapeutic Use Exemption is not valid if an Athlete’s urine contains a diuretic in association with threshold or sub-threshold levels of a Prohibited
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
a. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, jerklogous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin, other than for medical
b. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including but not limited to perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified
haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products).
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
The following is prohibited:
Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected in Doping Controls.
These include but are not limited to intravenous infusions*, catheterisation, andurine substitution.
* Except as a legitimate acute medical treatment, intravenous infusions are prohibited.
M3. GENE DOPING
The non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to enhance athletic performance, is
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S1 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited in competition:
The following stimulants are prohibited, including both their optical (D- and L-) isomers where relevant:
Adrafinil, amfepramone, amiphenazole, amphetamine, amphetaminil, benzphetamine, bromantan, carphedon, cathine*, clobenzorex, cocaine,
dimethylamphetamine, ephedrine**, etilamphetamine, etilefrine, famprofazone, fencamfamin, fencamine, fenetylline, fenfluramine,
fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mephentermine, mesocarb, methamphetamine, methylamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine,
methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylephedrine**, methylphenidate, modafinil, nikethamide, norfenfluramine, parahydroxyamphetamine,
pemoline, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, phentermine, prolintane, selegiline, strychnine, and other substances with a similar chemical structure or
similar biological effect(s)***.
* Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.
** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
*** The substances included in the 2005 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradrol, pseudoephedrine,
synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
NOTE: Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
The following narcotics are prohibited:
buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone,
oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Cannabinoids (e.g. hashish, marijuana) are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered orally, rectally, intravenously or intramuscularly. Their use requires a Therapeutic Use Exemption
All other routes of administration require an abbreviated Therapeutic Use
Dermatological preparations are not prohibited.
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited in-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping
violation threshold for each Federation is reported in parenthesis.
• Aeronautic (FAI) (0.20 g/L)
• Archery (FITA) (0.10 g/L)
• Automobile (FIA) (0.10 g/L)
• Billiards (WCBS) (0.20 g/L)
• Boules (CMSB) (0.10 g/L)
• Karate (WKF) (0.10 g/L)
• Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) (0.10 g/L)
for disciplines involving shooting
• Motorcycling (FIM) (0.00 g/L)
• Skiing (FIS) (0.10 g/L)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited in-Competition only, in the following sports.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA) (also prohibited out-of-competition)
• Automobile (FIA)
• Billiards (WCBS)
• Bobsleigh (FIBT)
• Boules (CMSB)
• Bridge (FMB)
• Chess (FIDE)
• Curling (WCF)
• Gymnastics (FIG)
• Motorcycling (FIM)
• Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting
• Nine-pin bowling (FIQ)
• Sailing (ISAF) for match race helms only
• Shooting (ISSF) (also prohibited out-of-competition)
• Skiing (FIS) in ski jumping & free style snow board
• Swimming (FINA) in diving & synchronised swimming
• Wrestling (FILA)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following: acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol,
carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
“Specified Substances”* are listed below:
Ephedrine, L-methylamphetamine, methylephedrine; Cannabinoids;
All inhaled Beta-2 Agonists, except clenbuterol; Probenecid; All Glucocorticosteroids; All Beta Blockers; Alcohol.
* “The Prohibited List may identify specified substances which are particularly
susceptible to unintentional anti-doping rule violations because of their general
availability in medicinal products or which are less likely to be successfully abused
as doping agents.” A doping violation involving such substances may result in a
reduced sanction provided that the “…Athlete can establish that the Use of such a
specified substance was not intended to enhance sport performance…”
Approved: Malawi, Glashima, KaNgwane (3)
Rejected: United Faiths (1)
Voting ends: June 16, 2007